Hathi Trust has volumes 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, and 11 of the Printers’ International Specimen Exchange online, digitized from the University of Michigan Library. The quality of the scanning can be frustrating: more than a few specimens are shown in black and white instead of color, the scans can’t capture the subtle color values of others, and a few pages are missing altogether. While not a satisfactory substitute for seeing the volumes themselves, these digitized versions do give a decent impression of the scope and content. They can be viewed page by page or as flip books, the text is searchable, and pages can be downloaded as PDFs for reference.

Sheaff Ephemera is the project of Richard D. Sheaff, who kindly contributed several images of specimens from later volumes of the Specimen Exchange from his own collection for use in my book. His website is a wonderful survey of ephemera and job printing of all kinds, mostly from the nineteenth century, along with other aspects of typography, photography, and design.

Harpel’s Typograph by Oscar Harpel of Cincinnati (1870) at, digitized by the Boston Public Library. The book that had an enormous influence on printers of the time, not least the organizers of the Printers’ International Specimen Exchange, for whom it served as a model of education by example.

New Zealand Electronic Text Centre: searchable archive of Typo. A Monthly Newspaper and Literary Review (1887-1897).Typo is the centerpiece of a three-year research project on typographical journals funded by the Marsden Fund of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Entitled ‘The Printers’ Web: Typographical Journals and Global Communication Networks in the Nineteenth Century,’ the project tracks the rich personal, professional, and textual interchanges between a number of printer-journalists who produced these journals.”